Currently on version 4, Angular continues to be a robust framework for building Single Page Applications. Angular applications are built from components. Components combine HTML templates with special objects and control a portion of the page. A simple component from Angular's docs is shown here:. Components are defined using the Component decorator function, which takes in metadata about the component. The selector property identifies the id of the element on the page where this component will be displayed.
Angular scripts concerned with building, deploying, and testing the app are typically located in a higher-level folder. Angular also makes great use of command line interface CLI tooling. Getting started with Angular development locally assuming you already have git and npm installed consists of simply cloning a repo from GitHub and running npm install and npm start. Beyond this, Angular ships its own CLI tool which can create projects, add files, and assist with testing, bundling, and deployment tasks. This app includes Angular modules to manage the online store's shopping basket, load and display items from its catalog, and handling order creation.
You can view and download the sample application from GitHub.
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Unlike Angular, which offers a full Model-View-Controller pattern implementation, React is only concerned with views. It's not a framework, just a library, so to build a SPA you'll need to leverage additional libraries.
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There isn't nearly as much learning curve or special syntax involved as with Angular or other popular libraries. Because React isn't a full framework, you'll typically want other libraries to handle things like routing, web API calls, and dependency management. The nice thing is, you can pick the best library for each of these, but the disadvantage is that you need to make all of these decisions and verify all of your chosen libraries work well together when you're done.
These examples barely scratch the surface. Almost anything you can do in CSS3 will work in jQuery, plus many more complicated selectors. The complete list of selectors is well documented on the jQuery Selectors documentation page. Forget this practice.
In this case, an anonymous function is created inline—a technique that is used throughout the jQuery documentation. One problem with many DOM scripting effects is that they often require us to hide elements of the document from view.
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We also can't access private members in methods that are added to the object at a later point. That said, in many cases the Module pattern is still quite useful and when used correctly, certainly has the potential to improve the structure of our application. Other disadvantages include the inability to create automated unit tests for private members and additional complexity when bugs require hot fixes. It's simply not possible to patch privates. Instead, one must override all public methods which interact with the buggy privates. Developers can't easily extend privates either, so it's worth remembering privates are not as flexible as they may initially appear.
For further reading on the Module pattern, see Ben Cherry's excellent in-depth article on it. The Revealing Module pattern came about as Heilmann was frustrated with the fact that he had to repeat the name of the main object when we wanted to call one public method from another or access public variables.
The result of his efforts was an updated pattern where we would simply define all of our functions and variables in the private scope and return an anonymous object with pointers to the private functionality we wished to reveal as public. The pattern can also be used to reveal private functions and properties with a more specific naming scheme if we would prefer:. This pattern allows the syntax of our scripts to be more consistent.
It also makes it more clear at the end of the module which of our functions and variables may be accessed publicly which eases readability. A disadvantage of this pattern is that if a private function refers to a public function, that public function can't be overridden if a patch is necessary. This is because the private function will continue to refer to the private implementation and the pattern doesn't apply to public members, only to functions. Public object members which refer to private variables are also subject to the no-patch rule notes above.
As a result of this, modules created with the Revealing Module pattern may be more fragile than those created with the original Module pattern, so care should be taken during usage. The Singleton pattern is thus known because it restricts instantiation of a class to a single object. Classically, the Singleton pattern can be implemented by creating a class with a method that creates a new instance of the class if one doesn't exist. In the event of an instance already existing, it simply returns a reference to that object. Singletons differ from static classes or objects as we can delay their initialization, generally because they require some information that may not be available during initialization time.
They don't provide a way for code that is unaware of a previous reference to them to easily retrieve them. This is because it is neither the object or "class" that's returned by a Singleton, it's a structure. Think of how closured variables aren't actually closures - the function scope that provides the closure is the closure.
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Here, getInstance becomes a little like a Factory method and we don't need to update each point in our code accessing it. FooSingleton above would be a subclass of BasicSingleton and implement the same interface. It is important to note the difference between a static instance of a class object and a Singleton: whilst a Singleton can be implemented as a static instance, it can also be constructed lazily, without the need for resources nor memory until this is actually needed. If we have a static object that can be initialized directly, we need to ensure the code is always executed in the same order e.
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