Applied jQuery: Develop and Design

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What is jQuery?

AngularJS quickly became one of the world's most popular JavaScript frameworks.

Currently on version 4, Angular continues to be a robust framework for building Single Page Applications. Angular applications are built from components. Components combine HTML templates with special objects and control a portion of the page. A simple component from Angular's docs is shown here:. Components are defined using the Component decorator function, which takes in metadata about the component. The selector property identifies the id of the element on the page where this component will be displayed.

The template property is a simple HTML template that includes a placeholder that corresponds to the component's name property, defined on the last line. By working with components and templates, instead of DOM elements, Angular apps can operate at a higher level of abstraction and with less overall code than apps written using just JavaScript also called "vanilla JS" or with jQuery. Angular also imposes some order on how you organize your client-side script files. By convention, Angular apps use a common folder structure, with module and component script files located in an app folder.

Angular scripts concerned with building, deploying, and testing the app are typically located in a higher-level folder. Angular also makes great use of command line interface CLI tooling. Getting started with Angular development locally assuming you already have git and npm installed consists of simply cloning a repo from GitHub and running npm install and npm start. Beyond this, Angular ships its own CLI tool which can create projects, add files, and assist with testing, bundling, and deployment tasks. This app includes Angular modules to manage the online store's shopping basket, load and display items from its catalog, and handling order creation.

You can view and download the sample application from GitHub.

Applied jQuery: Develop and Design - Jay Blanchard - Google Books

Unlike Angular, which offers a full Model-View-Controller pattern implementation, React is only concerned with views. It's not a framework, just a library, so to build a SPA you'll need to leverage additional libraries.

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One of React's most important features is its use of a virtual DOM. The virtual DOM provides React with several advantages, including performance the virtual DOM can optimize which parts of the actual DOM need to be updated and testability no need to have a browser to test React and its interactions with its virtual DOM. React is also unusual in how it works with HTML. For example:. If you already know JavaScript, learning React should be easy.

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There isn't nearly as much learning curve or special syntax involved as with Angular or other popular libraries. Because React isn't a full framework, you'll typically want other libraries to handle things like routing, web API calls, and dependency management. The nice thing is, you can pick the best library for each of these, but the disadvantage is that you need to make all of these decisions and verify all of your chosen libraries work well together when you're done.

If you want a good starting point, you can use a starter kit like React Slingshot, which prepackages a set of compatible libraries together with React. When considering which JavaScript framework will work best to support your SPA, keep in mind the following considerations:. Is your team familiar with the framework and its dependencies including TypeScript in some cases?

JavaScript frameworks continue to evolve with breakneck speed. Use the considerations listed above to help mitigate the risk of choosing a framework you'll later regret being dependent upon. Previous Next. Skip to main content. This snippet shows how the above list should be marked up. This section will explore three priceless tips and tricks for using jQuery to implement best practices and accessible effects. Selectors can amazingly select an element out of the DOM tree so that it can be manipulated in some way. Techniques like this enable the use of much more semantically correct X HTML markup, while still facilitating the DOM scripting required to create complex interactions.

These examples barely scratch the surface. Almost anything you can do in CSS3 will work in jQuery, plus many more complicated selectors. The complete list of selectors is well documented on the jQuery Selectors documentation page. Forget this practice.

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Wipe it from your mind. This is the key to unobtrusive DOM scripting, as it allows us to completely separate our Javascript code from our markup. This means that we can create entire effects for our pages without changing the markup for the elements in question. Using this functionality in jQuery is simple. The true beauty of this markup is that it lives in an external Javascript file.

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In this case, an anonymous function is created inline—a technique that is used throughout the jQuery documentation. One problem with many DOM scripting effects is that they often require us to hide elements of the document from view.

This hiding is usually achieved through CSS. However, this is less than desirable. The solution to this comes in the form of a plugin for jQuery called cssRule, which allows us to use Javascript to easily add CSS rules to the style sheet of the document. This is the key reason for runtime, Javascript-based, dynamic CSS rule creation. Simon Willison A great set of slides about using jQuery unobtrusively.

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Also, finishes with a wonderful summary of jQuery methods and usage. For starters, it's a lot cleaner for developers coming from an object-oriented background than the idea of true encapsulation, at least from a JavaScript perspective. Secondly, it supports private data - so, in the Module pattern, public parts of our code are able to touch the private parts, however the outside world is unable to touch the class's private parts no laughing! Oh, and thanks to David Engfer for the joke. The disadvantages of the Module pattern are that as we access both public and private members differently, when we wish to change visibility, we actually have to make changes to each place the member was used.

We also can't access private members in methods that are added to the object at a later point. That said, in many cases the Module pattern is still quite useful and when used correctly, certainly has the potential to improve the structure of our application. Other disadvantages include the inability to create automated unit tests for private members and additional complexity when bugs require hot fixes. It's simply not possible to patch privates. Instead, one must override all public methods which interact with the buggy privates. Developers can't easily extend privates either, so it's worth remembering privates are not as flexible as they may initially appear.

For further reading on the Module pattern, see Ben Cherry's excellent in-depth article on it. The Revealing Module pattern came about as Heilmann was frustrated with the fact that he had to repeat the name of the main object when we wanted to call one public method from another or access public variables.

How To Get Started with jQuery: Make JavaScript Programming Easier

The result of his efforts was an updated pattern where we would simply define all of our functions and variables in the private scope and return an anonymous object with pointers to the private functionality we wished to reveal as public. The pattern can also be used to reveal private functions and properties with a more specific naming scheme if we would prefer:. This pattern allows the syntax of our scripts to be more consistent.

It also makes it more clear at the end of the module which of our functions and variables may be accessed publicly which eases readability. A disadvantage of this pattern is that if a private function refers to a public function, that public function can't be overridden if a patch is necessary. This is because the private function will continue to refer to the private implementation and the pattern doesn't apply to public members, only to functions. Public object members which refer to private variables are also subject to the no-patch rule notes above.

As a result of this, modules created with the Revealing Module pattern may be more fragile than those created with the original Module pattern, so care should be taken during usage. The Singleton pattern is thus known because it restricts instantiation of a class to a single object. Classically, the Singleton pattern can be implemented by creating a class with a method that creates a new instance of the class if one doesn't exist. In the event of an instance already existing, it simply returns a reference to that object. Singletons differ from static classes or objects as we can delay their initialization, generally because they require some information that may not be available during initialization time.

They don't provide a way for code that is unaware of a previous reference to them to easily retrieve them. This is because it is neither the object or "class" that's returned by a Singleton, it's a structure. Think of how closured variables aren't actually closures - the function scope that provides the closure is the closure.

In JavaScript, Singletons serve as a shared resource namespace which isolate implementation code from the global namespace so as to provide a single point of access for functions. What makes the Singleton is the global access to the instance generally through MySingleton. This is however possible in JavaScript. There must be exactly one instance of a class, and it must be accessible to clients from a well-known access point. When the sole instance should be extensible by subclassing, and clients should be able to use an extended instance without modifying their code.

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Here, getInstance becomes a little like a Factory method and we don't need to update each point in our code accessing it. FooSingleton above would be a subclass of BasicSingleton and implement the same interface. It is important to note the difference between a static instance of a class object and a Singleton: whilst a Singleton can be implemented as a static instance, it can also be constructed lazily, without the need for resources nor memory until this is actually needed. If we have a static object that can be initialized directly, we need to ensure the code is always executed in the same order e.

Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design
Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design
Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design
Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design
Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design
Applied jQuery: Develop and Design Applied jQuery: Develop and Design

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