Feedback: Providing learners with information about an action and its result in relation to some criterion of acceptability. Feedback can be positive, nega- tive, or neutral. The facilitator leads the process, tries to make sure everyone is involved, and collects data for analysis. Frequently Asked Questions: A file with commonly asked questions and their answers created to help trainees in self-instructional or asynchronous deliveries.
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Graphical User Interface: A process for allowing the user to communicate with computer software through the use of graphic icons instead of words. Graphical user interface has become the preferred method for communication with computers, but can be tricky if the user does not understand what the icons represent. This is a particular problem in a multicultural environment.
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Think Apple versus DOS. Guided Simulation: A simulation in which learners receive coaching or feedback during the activity. Handout: Supporting information used by the learner as reference or activity material in a training program. Hands-On: An activity in which the trainees practice on actual equipment, simulators, or special training aids. Hot Spots: Places on a computer screen where hyperlinks occur and that a trainee can select. Sometimes they are obviously marked and sometimes not, depending on the type of interaction you are trying to accomplish.
How to Evaluate Instructional Materials (Infoline)
Human Performance Technologist: An individual responsible for utilizing various technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabili- ties in the workplace. These technologies include methods and procedures from many fields, such as instructional technology, organization development, career development, motivation and feedback, human factors, and employee selection. This allows for the important process of learner control and for enrichment or remedial activities. Hypertext: More or less the same as hyperlink, except it is an older term that was used when only words were hyperlinks.
Hypertext Markup Language: The code used to create web pages. ID see Instructional Design. Immediate Feedback: Feedback given to learners at the moment they complete an action or provide some form of input, such as answering a question. Individualized Instruction: A learning design in which each trainee works on materials without regard to what other trainees in the same class or facility are doing. Sometimes the learning is prescriptive, and it is often self-paced.
Instructional Activity: An activity designed to promote learning and transfer of knowledge. A course is typically a series of lessons made up of instructional activities. Instructional Design: A systematic approach to creating training that meets the needs of the trainees and the organization while being as effective and efficient as possible.
Instructional Design Software: Similar to authoring systems but used before them to guide trainers in making important instructional design decisions for any type of training, but particularly for technology-based training. Instructional design software is usually easier to use than authoring systems, but it is the rare individual who can employ one without some instructional design knowledge. It is sometimes referred to as pre-authoring software. Instructional Game: A game designed to teach concepts, behaviors, atti- tudes, or procedures. Can be part of an instructional activity.
Instructional Plan: An intermediate step in program design in which the topic outline is expanded to include sequenced content notations and possible activities. Instructional Setting: The location and physical characteristics of the place in which a form of instruction takes place. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory, workplace location, learning center, or any other place in which people receive training. Instructional Systems Design: A systematic process of designing learning activities.
By following ISD, designers increase the likelihood that their course designs will be appropriate and effective. The most basic form of the ISD model is a five-step process of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
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Instructional Technologist: One who is an expert with instructional tech- nologies. This is a dying breed, as no one person can be expert in all the varying technologies available today. Most practitioners consider themselves expert in one or two aspects of technology and work with teams of other experts to cre- ate great technology-based training. If you run into someone who claims to be a truly general instructional technologist, watch out for the snake oil. Instructor: An individual who provides knowledge or information to learners by directly presenting content and directing structured learning experiences.
Instructor-Led Training: Training that relies on the instructor to present content and create an effective environment for learning. Interactive Distance Learning: An interesting term that should simply be redundant, but often is not. Good instructional design for technology-based training or any instruction, for that matter demands plenty of student interaction, so methods in which there is none should not be considered valid training techniques, which is why the term is redundant.
Interactive Video-Disc: This is an old technology that is almost obsolete. My advice is to ignore it and it will go away, mostly due to the emergence of digital video-discs.
Learning for Performance - Resources
Internet: A global network of networks connecting millions of computer users worldwide. Internet Service Provider: A company or group that connects users to the Internet. Interviews: A data-collection technique in which the collector meets with individuals, such as SMEs or managers, usually to ask them a series of prepared questions. Intranet: A private network based on the Internet standards, but servicing a known organization from behind a secure access point.
Introduction: A major section of a lesson plan designed to establish com- mon ground, capture and hold trainee attention, outline the lesson, point out benefits of the learning, and to lead the trainee into the body of the lesson. Item Analysis: The process of evaluating test items by determining how well an individual item is answered by examinees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with objectives.
JIT see Just-in-Time. Job Aid: An easy-to-carry summary of a procedure that the learner can use on the job to aid transfer of learning. It provides guidance on the performance of a specific task or skill. Job aids are used in situations in which it is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-job activity. Job Analysis: A technique for breaking a job into component parts such as duties and tasks. Job Duty: A combination of related tasks equals a duty, and duties combine to form a job.
Just-in-Time: A method of providing training when it is needed by the trainee rather than when a class is held or a trainer is available. Learner Characteristics: The traits, such as reading level, education, posi- tion, interests, and so on, possessed by learners that could affect their ability to learn.
Learning Center: A designated facility, usually staffed by one or more facil- itators, where trainees go to view self-instructional programs. Learning Portal: A website that offers access to learning and training resources from many different sources. Lesson: A portion of a course. Courses may be organized by topics, modules, lessons, or units. Lesson Plan: A written guide for trainers that provides specific definitions and directions on learning objectives, equipment, instructional media, mate- rial requirements, and conduct of the training.
This is more an education- based term, with trainers usually referring to it as a facilitator guide. Linear: A programming method characterized by short steps of ordered instruction followed by constructed responses. Location: The place a video or still shoot will take place.
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Lunch and Learn: A meeting held at lunchtime featuring a presentation, workshop, or other learning process. Mastery: Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance. Mastery Learning: A design characteristic in which the trainee is expected to achieve a pre-set level of mastery for the material to be learned. This mas- tery level is usually measured through a criterion-referenced evaluation.
Media List: A master list of all media elements included in a program over- heads, print, video, audio, graphics, and animations. Model: A representation of a process or system that shows the most important aspects of the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system. Module: A unit of instruction. This term is often used to delineate a self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives, appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference measures.
Multimedia: Most commonly refers to the use of text, graphics, sound, video, and computer-generated animation, or any combination of the above, usually in a self-directed, computer-based format, often employing a DVD or other large-capacity storage device such as a server, as part of the delivery system. Multimedia is usually designed and developed by a team of experts. Currently, it has some usage problems in e-learning due to bandwidth limitations. Mobile Learning m-Learning : Use of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile communications devices to deliver training, assessments, job aids, elec- tronic performance support tools, and any other form of knowledge sharing that lends itself to self-directed processes on small screens and with limited capability.
Multimedia Training: A delivery system that incorporates various technology-based instructional methods, such as graphics, text, animation, audio, and video. It is most often delivered on a DVD or via a server. Narration: The spoken portion of a video or audio production, especially any- thing spoken directly to the audience instead of dialogue between the actors. Navigation: How a user moves through a technology-based training program. Navigation controls are typically a series of buttons or icons.
Need: The difference between the way things are and the way they ought to be. Needs Assessment: A process used to determine the difference between current and desired states, often related to the development of a training program.
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Nominal Group Technique: A data-collection technique related to brain- storming but more structured, with participants recording their own ideas, then bringing them before the group and discussing them one by one. In the end, the group ranks the ideas. Objective: A specific statement of what learners will be able to do when they complete a training program or a piece of a program. Off-the-Shelf: Training produced by an outside agency for use by other orga- nizations.
Normally used by organizations when in-house-produced training programs would be more costly or take too much time to develop. On-the-Job Training: Training in the skills and knowledge needed to per- form a job, taking place in the actual work environment.see url
How to Evaluate Instructional Materials
Online Learning: Often used to mean synchronous e-learning, it is also a delivery method in which the learners communicate with the instructor through discussion boards and chat rooms as they complete pre-planned activities and exercises on their own. It can be an excellent methodology for the practice of collaborative learning.
Open-Ended Test Item: A question that can be answered in a variety of ways, such as an essay question. Organizational Need: The reason for doing training. A difference between where the organization is and where it should be, determined through various analysis methods.
Organizational Needs Analysis: A needs-analysis technique that identifies a gap between what the organization expects and its current performance.
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