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The design, implementation and maintenance of UVGI devices can be a challenge but when done correctly, UVGI can help to reduce the transmission of certain transmissible respiratory infections. There are generally two types of UVGI systems used for active air disinfection within patient treatment settings this discussion does not address terminal cleaning in unoccupied rooms.
In-duct systems, as the name implies, are installed inside ventilation ductwork or inside the air handling units AHUs themselves.
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When in-duct systems are impossible or impractical or, when the intent is to have a more direct impact upon airborne infectious exposures within a particular room, upper-air UVGI systems are an appropriate option. These systems use UVGI fixtures suspended from the ceiling or mounted on walls to irradiate the air in the upper portion of the room while limiting UV exposure to individuals in the occupied space. Regardless of which type of UVGI system is used, commissioning of the final installation is an important component to the design and installation process.
At a minimum, the commissioning process should include measurements that verify the delivery of UVGI energy to the irradiance zone that is specified in the design. When selected to produce appropriate irradiance levels, in-duct systems can be effective for air disinfection [ Martin et al. In-air disinfection systems generally use fixtures that do not have reflectors or lamp ballast assemblies that block UV energy, so a large irradiance zone on both sides of the lamps can be achieved Figure 2.
Instead, enhancing the overall reflectivity of the duct or AHU interior improves system performance by reflecting UV-C energy back into the irradiance zone, thus increasing the effective UV dose [ Kowalski and Bahnfleth ]. The principle objective of in-duct air disinfection systems is to distribute UV energy in all directions throughout long lengths of the duct or inside the AHU itself, in order to achieve extended exposure times as air moves through the irradiated zone.
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Handbook: UVGI for Air and Surface Disinfection
Figure 1. The UV dose required to inactivate a microorganism is the same whether it is on a surface or in a moving air stream. To compensate for shorter exposure times, the in-duct air disinfection systems require higher irradiance levels than surface disinfection systems.
Methods to accomplish the higher irradiance levels include more lamps and higher-output UV-C lamps within the duct, enhanced surface reflectivity, flow diversion methods that allow air to be exposed to UV-C over a longer air path, or any combination of these.
Whatever the design approach taken, the system designer should be able to calculate the single-pass UV-C dose that an airborne organism receives during a single pass through the UVGI system. Reputable UVGI system designers will also have information readily available. Within any proposed design, system designers should document calculations for the delivered UV-C energy field, the single-pass time of flight of an airborne organism passing through this field, the resulting UV-C dose experienced by the organism in a single pass, and a comparison of this dose with published D90 inactivation values.
If the end user is uncertain which organism they should specify for their design objective, one approach would be to design for the inactivation of My coba cterium t ube rc ulosis. This would be effective at ensuring inactivation of most bacteria and viruses including the influenza virus known to cause disease via airborne transmission. However, as novel organisms are identified, this guidance may need to be updated if the new organisms are particularly resistant to UV inactivation.
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Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Handbook
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USD Buy Online, Pick up in Store is currently unavailable, but this item may be available for in-store purchase. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Temporarily Out of Stock Online Please check back later for updated availability. Overview This book is a comprehensive source for technical information regarding ultraviolet germicidal irradiation UVGI and its application to air and surface disinfection for the control of pathogens and allergens.
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